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Preeclampsia was once called “the disease of theories,” but research efforts this past decade have produced exciting breakthroughs that may bring us closer to causality, improve diagnosis and even prediction, and lead to prevention and/or specific treatments. Some speculation remains over different theories including: changes in biology of the placenta, the systemic inflammatory response, a variety of hormones and other proteins that are in the mother’s circulation, changes in immune factors, improper cardiovascular adaptations to the pregnant state, underlying maternal risks for cardiovascular disease, associations with insulin resistance and diabetes, and deficiencies in essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. 

The most plausible theories focus on the placenta and describe the disorder in two stages. In the first, the initiating cause results in the placenta producing factors (e.g., specific proteins, placental “debris”) that enter the maternal circulation and are believed responsible for producing the next stage. This is the second stage, which results in the overt maternal “disease” (high blood pressure, kidney, liver and coagulation abnormalities).  The overt disease depends not only on the action of the circulating factors from the placenta, but also the health of the mother, including diseases that may affect the vasculature (such as preexisting cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, and genetic factors; and obesity). A quick chart of potential causes can be found in our FAQsTITAN Wrestling F 1992 SPORTS Sweatshirt TATANKA Licensed Vintage Official W W CqFgqw.

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A promising area of recent research involves the role of proteins produced by the placenta that inhibit angiogenesis (the production of new blood vessels).  Two of these “antiangiogenic factors” (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and soluble endoglin) have been shown to produce a preeclampsia like disease in rodents. Their concentrations rise in the mother’s circulation weeks to months before the disease manifests.  Placentas of women destined to develop preeclampsia overproduce these proteins that then enter the mother’s circulation.  Neutralizing their actions is now being investigated in animal models, and in some studies has reversed the disease in rodents. .  Excitement regarding these interventions is tempered by a limited understanding of the functional role of antiangiogenic substances in normal pregnancy.

If the ability of these antiangiogenic proteins to cause preeclampsia is confirmed by research in humans, why the placenta overproduces them remains unknown. Hence, many of the other areas of investigation mentioned above may be important.  Preeclampsia may have multiple causes, and other leads are being investigated, including prostaglandins, digoxin-like molecules, immunological mechanisms, autoantibodies that trigger receptors that lead to vessel constriction (agonistic autoantibodies to the angiotensin 1 receptor), oxidative stress, mitochondrial pathology, the impact of hypertension and prehypertension on endovascular health, and genes sensitive to low oxygen environments. 

Basic research into causes of preeclampsia, lacking for decades, is being revitalized, albeit more slowly than needed. While we are moving closer to historically elusive answers, the true cause of preeclampsia remains unknown. Successful ongoing  research needs far more support and funding.

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Abstract Pullover Multicolor English L Heavy Sweater Heavy London Sweater Wool Assets Design Burgundy Ski M Vintage Wool Handknit Wool 7x6qvSqw Abstract Pullover Multicolor English L Heavy Sweater Heavy London Sweater Wool Assets Design Burgundy Ski M Vintage Wool Handknit Wool 7x6qvSqw Abstract Pullover Multicolor English L Heavy Sweater Heavy London Sweater Wool Assets Design Burgundy Ski M Vintage Wool Handknit Wool 7x6qvSqw Abstract Pullover Multicolor English L Heavy Sweater Heavy London Sweater Wool Assets Design Burgundy Ski M Vintage Wool Handknit Wool 7x6qvSqw Abstract Pullover Multicolor English L Heavy Sweater Heavy London Sweater Wool Assets Design Burgundy Ski M Vintage Wool Handknit Wool 7x6qvSqw
Vintage Assets London heavy handknit wool, ramie and cotton pullover sweater, burgundy multicolor fleck, cream, gray, brown, yellow abstract pattern. Purchased in NYC in the 1990s at a store specializing in UK clothing and hardly ever worn. The sweater was recently dry cleaned for selling, but I removed the tag to show the label. From a pet and smoke-free home, stored away from elements in summer months.







The sweater is beautifully knit with a rolled collar and sleeves, with yarn embellishment at neck sleeve hems. There are no holes. I stored it in a bag with lavender to repel moths so there may be a faint scent lingering. It's a generous size and will look great with everything. It's too warm for me so I am reluctantly letting go of it after admiring but not wearing it for 20 years.







Dimensions:







Bust: 26.5 side to side under arm



Length: 34 inches



Sleeve length, from center back neck to hem: 32 inches







It's labeled M but it will fit a large.







Please consider carefully as there are no returns.







I have done my best to capture the color accurately but color monitors vary.







Because of recent losses via USPS, all items are mailed with insurance.
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